Major correlates of male height: A study of 105 countries. The southern coast includes such archipelagos as Jardines de la Reina and the Canarreos. They concluded that the reason for this is not entirely clear. This page was last edited on 29 April 2023, at 23:31. Jee, Y. H., Baron, J., Phillip, M., & Bhutta, Z. Cuba lies west of the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Gulf of Mexico, south of the Straits of Florida, northwest of the Windward Passage, and northeast of the Yucatn Channel. The Gross Domestic Product per capita in Cuba was last recorded at 7291.07 US dollars in 2021. What separates them is their intake of animal protein: the Netherlands animal:plant protein ratio is 2.16 versus only 0.69 in South Korea. Komlos, J. Improvements in environmental factors such as nutrition and health could result in further increases in average heights. Curve FW 50 would apply to Uruguay and the Netherlands Antilles, whilst FW 20 could be used to represent Jamaica, St Vincent, Guyana and the combined Caribbean islands. source: World Bank 10Y 25Y 50Y MAX Chart Compare Export API Embed Cuba GDP This height disparity between the sexes is present everywhere in the world. Its main island is the 17th-largest island in the world by land area. Human Organization, 15-20. Nearly 4,200 islands, islets and cays make up the country. Van Zanden, J. L., Baten, J., Foldvari, P., & Van Leeuwen, B. There are large variations in average height between nations: the shortest being men in Timor at 160 cm, and the tallest from the Netherlands at 182 cm. height, weight and body mass index values from birth to adulthood", "Estudio Antropomtrico de la Poblacin Femenina en Espaa", "Grupo Investigacin Antropometra Instituto de Biomecnica > Metodologa", "The average height of 18- and 19-year-old conscripts (N=458,322) in Switzerland from 1992 to 2009, and the secular height trend since 1878", "Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2011", Institutional Profile: Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University, "Secular changes and predictors of adult height for 86 105 male and female members of the Thai Cohort Study born between 1940 and 1990", "Rapport final de l'enqute STEPS Togo 2010, Togo STEPS survey report", "Kingdom of Tonga NCD Risk Factors STEPS Report", "Panamerican STEPS chronic non-communicable disease risk factor survey", "Anthropometric Characteristics of Tunisian Population in Comparison to the World", "National household health survey in Turkey prevalence of noncommunicable disease risk factors 2017", "Obesity in adults in Turkey: age and regional effects", "Secular trend in body height and weight of Turkish adults", " STEPS 2018", "Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Baseline Survey, Uganda 2014 Report", "Social and Demographic Characteristics of Households of Ukraine", "National growth charts for the United Arab Emirates", 2011 Census, Population Estimates by single year of age and sex for Local Authorities in the United Kingdom, "Anthropometric Reference Data for Children and Adults: United States, 2015-2018", "Cruzada por lo alto: los petisos denuncian dura discriminacin", " (STEPS )", "The Ministry of Health released the results of a country-wide study conducted by the General Statistics Office and National Institute of Nutrition on the height of Vietnamese citizens in 20192020", "Height and body-mass index trajectories of school-aged children and adolescents from 1985 to 2019 in 200 countries and territories: a pooled analysis of 2181 population-based studies with 65 million participants", "Height and body-mass index trajectories of school-aged children and adolescents from 1985 to 2019 in 201 countries and territories: a pooled analysis of 2181 population-based studies with 65 million participants", The Havanese was once called the Havana Silk Dog or the Spanish Silk Poodle. In March, in Havana, Cuba, the average low-temperature is 19.7C (67.5F). The mean age in the sample is 17.5 (0.6). But this tells us very little about the distribution of heights globally, regionally or within in a given country. Most countries use the metric system to measure height. Recent data on heights uses additional sources including surveys and medical records. Wood, A. R., Esko, T., Yang, J., Vedantam, S., Pers, T. H., Gustafsson, S., & Amin, N. (2014). Vox CEPR Policy Portal (2015). Across the world, this relative difference between the sexes can vary from only 2-3% to over 12%. 1976. How do expected growth trends differ for boys and girls? These are the Colorados, the Sabana-Camagey, the Jardines de la Reina and the Canarreos. But for other distributions, they can be very different. If we know the mean and standard deviation of heights, we have a good understanding of how heights vary across a population. Globally, the mean height of women is about four and a half inches, or 12 centimeters (cm), shorter than that of men. Per sources: Country Elevation . Summary Forecast Stats Download The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Cuba was worth 107.40 billion US dollars in 2020, according to official data from the World Bank. Shapiro H (1939) Migration and Environment: a study of the physical characteristics of the Japanese immigrants to Hawaii and the effects of environment on their descendants. Another leading mineral resource is cobalt, a byproduct of nickel mining operations. Biased samples yield biased results: What historical heights can teach us about past living standards. Of particular interest is a round figure and in-source references for North Korea. Both David Cameron and Barack Obama beat the . In Nature Genetics. These measurement units are not hard to switch between, but countries tend to stick to one over the other to maintain consistency. This trend is particularly curious for Sub-Saharan Africa, where average height appears to be falling the most while the region has simultaneously achieved progress across many aspects of wellbeing. For example, easy access to fast food nowadays may lead to inadequate nutrient intake, which may result in lower height. The latitude and longitude of Cuba covers 110,860 square kilometer of total land. We can also see this regional change for women, here. In other words, resource-based variance due to income inequality is added to genetic variance, widening the distribution of heights. We see this in the chart. A. Both sexes grow very quickly in the first six months of life, with this growth rate decreasing gradually during the following years. Cuba has negligible inland water area. It is for this reason much of the historical data focuses on men. As with any statistical data, the accuracy of the findings may be challenged. (2006). By contrast, cereals and grains constitute less than a quarter of dietary energy in the United States. Anthropometry of Shoshonean Tribes. American Anthropologist New Series 1(4): 751758. With regards the first table, original studies and sources should be consulted for details on methodology and the exact populations measured, surveyed, or considered. For more than half a century, the stand-off continued--through the tenure of ten American presidents and the fifty-year rule of Fidel Castro. Introduction. Secondly, we see that across all regions, average human heights have experienced significant growth over the past century. Adult height, nutrition, and population health. In a study of over 250,000 individuals using genome-wide data, the studywas able to identify 697 variants that determine an individuals height. [1] The largest island outside the main island is the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) in the southwest, with an area of 2,200km2 (850sqmi).[1]. The data shown here is based on a global study, published by NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) in 2016.3 This dataset is based on both demographic and health surveys as well as academic studies. The Source is Clark (2008) A Farewell to Alms: A Brief Economic History of the World. 18+ (N= m/f:50,916, SD= m:7.1cm (3in) f: 1564 (N= m:1,054 f:1,634, SD= m:7.2cm (3in) f: 1559 (N= m:6,624(1559) f:15,211(1549)), 18 (N= m:468 f:453, SD= m:5.5cm (2in) f:5.7cm (2in)). Furthermore, less energy expenditure due to a sedentary lifestyle leads to an increase in overweight and obesity which, in turn, are related to lower height.12 Additionally, the high consumption of milk in the Netherlands, which has been linked to tallness, declined over the past decade from 63 litres per capita per year in 2000 to 60 in 2010.13. Bolivia 160.0 cm (5 ft 3 in) 142.2 cm (4 ft 8 in) 20-29 . Cambridge, Mass. Nutrition & metabolism, 13(1), 64. In Havana, the average high-temperature in March is almost the same as in February - a still warm 27.6C (81.7F). : National Bureau of Economic Research., figures 3 and 4,andKoepke, Nikola, and Joerg Baten. This is true for every country in the world. As such, it is reasonable to assume that there is an upper limit to average heights, at which nutritional and health factors are optimal. Animal source food usually contains higher quality protein than plant source food. For instance, animal proteins comprise 9.5% of energy intake in Madagascar, where the average male height is 161.5 cm; Botswanans get 12.5% of their calories from animal proteins, and the men are 10 cm taller on average. Cuba makes maritime claims that include a territorial sea of 12 nautical miles (22.2km; 13.8mi) and an exclusive economic zone of 350,751km2 (135,426sqmi) with 200 nautical miles (370.4km; 230.2mi). Explorations in Economic History, 43(4), 578-608. It combines data from World Health Organization (WHO) growth reference standards for infants, children, and adolescents. A study of male heights across 105 different countries determined that that height and the HDI [Human Development Index] seem to be largely interchangeable as indicators of human well-being.21 This is illustrated in the following scatter plot which shows the relationship between a countrys Human Development Index and average male height by year of birth. This disparity between the actual and expected global average height may be due to the fact that historically, and still today, a large share of children are stunted. The distribution of heights has therefore be used as one indicator of socioeconomic inequality in the past.44. The data produced by third parties and made available by Our World in Data is subject to the license terms from the original third-party authors. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation, Rome, 17-24 October 2001. The university participation rate is approximately 20% in 2005. We might therefore expect that in countries where the fertility rate is high, health expenditure and nutritional quality per child is low, while incidence of disease is high. Even though the metric system is the most common measurement system, we will include the average height by country in both metric units and imperial units. Int. Accurately measuring the height of an individual is a straightforward task and so we should be confident that there isrelatively little measurement error in the recorded data. The global mean height of adult men born in 1996 is 171 centimetres (cm), or 5 foot and 7.5 inches. Below are two tables which report the average adult human height by country or geographical region. This chart shows the percentage change for men on the y-axis, and for women on the x-axis. Is the increase in human height coming to an end? Estimating trends in historical heights. Poor nutrition and illness in childhood limit human growth. They argue that as economies grew, tight labour markets discouraged military enlistments by the most productive workers, with those enlisting (and being measured) increasingly over-representing the less advantaged members of society., By comparing the heights of soldiers in the US army with countries that enforced conscription we can see the bias more clearly. ARIFI, Fitim et al. Natural resources include cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, salt, timber, silica, oil and petroleum. We will always indicate the original source of the data in our documentation, so you should always check the license of any such third-party data before use and redistribution. Unequal access to these resources within a population means that wealthier individuals could have better health and nutrition, and therefore tend to grow taller than poorer ones; variance of heights therefore becomes larger. Schaafsma, G. (2000). The Havanese descends from the same ancestor as the entire Bichon family, the . The average height for adult women varies around the world. Medical Research among the !Kung. In Kalahari Hunter-Gatherers, eds. Cuba's area is 110,860 km (42,803 sq mi) including coastal and territorial waters with a land area of 109,884km2 (42,426sqmi). Headey, D., Hirvonen, K., & Hoddinott, J. Compare this to Madagascar, which had the smallest gain of only 1.5 cm. (1999). Extensive irrigation systems are developed in the south of Sancti Spritus Province. Malnutrition and catch-up growth during childhood and puberty. 1 Disease during childhood can restrict growth because it reduces the availability of nutrients and raises metabolic requirements.34. Consider the difference between South Korea and the Netherlands: both have a very high HDI over 0.9 but the Dutch are nearly 8 centimeters taller (182.5 cm versus 175 cm). Nutrition Reviews, 74(3), 149-165. The global ratio around 1.07 has remained pretty much constant since the data began in 1896 despite large increases in absolute terms in the average heights of both men and women. But it gains statistical significance at lower incomes, where fertility rates are relatively high. 166194. The relationship between health and height is reinforced by the significant impact of healthcare expenditure. Cuba is characterized by flat and rolling plains and the Sierra Maestra Mountains. Health particularly in childhood also influences human height. Provinces are further subdivided into 168municipalities. As an aggregate of the regions with available data Europe, North America, Australia, and East Asia they found the mean male height to be 178.4 centimeters (cm) in the most recent cohort (born between 1980 and 1994).42 The standard deviation was 7.59 cm. Genetic influences on the difference in variability of height, weight and body mass index between Caucasian and East Asian adolescent twins. h Boix, Carles, and Frances Rosenbluth. Average male height by country. The global average height of adult women born in 1996 is 159 cm, or 5 foot and 3 inches. The University of Tuebingen provides data on human height for men in many countries around the world from 1810 to 1980. Common SNPs explain a large proportion of the heritability for human height. All of our charts can be embedded in any site. eLife,p. e13410. g Pages 4345 in Houghton, Philip. A low child mortality rate suggests low incidences of disease, as well as sufficient nourishment, and hence predicts a taller average height. j Pages 18082 in Hurtado, A. Magdalena, and Kim R. Hill. University students, 1920 (N= m:291 f:200, SD= m: 18 (N= >300,000; Jakarta: males = 165.1cm, females = 155.6cm), 21+ (N= m/f:89,532, SD= m:8.05cm (3in) f:7.22cm (3in)), Students, average age 18.25 (N= m:830 f:793, SD= m:7.02cm, f:4.93cm), Students, 1718 (N= m:100 f:93, SD= m:5.88cm, f:4.72cm). The main island is 780 miles, the largest island in the Caribbean. These coding variants can cause changes of up to 2 cm/allele ( Marouli et al., 2016 ). Yang, J., Benyamin, B., McEvoy, B. P., Gordon, S., Henders, A. K., Nyholt, D. R., & Goddard, M. E. (2010). Drawing upon height data from almost 150,000 twinned pairs born between 1886 and 1994, one study investigated the variance in heights across populations through time, and tried to explain how much could be explained by genetics versus environmental differences.41. With the onset of modernity, we see a massive spike in heights in the developed world. Licenses: All visualizations, data, and articles produced by Our World in Data are open access under the Creative Commons BY license. Source 2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows), This page was last edited on 2 January 2023, at 05:58. The ten tallest countries, with the first one being the country with the tallest average human height in the world, include: At the other end of the spectrum are the top ten countries with the shortest average height, which currently include: Mapped: The world's tallest (and shortest) countries, Evoltion of adult height over time [dataset] - NCD-RisC, A century of trends in adult human height - ELifeSciences. Overall, the average male height in the world ranges from 160 cm to 184 cm depending on the country. Remarkably, the average male and female heights of the region have been falling since 1970, despite improvements in health and nutrition. Height inequality, which is measured by the coefficient of variation (CV), is therefore positively correlated with income inequality, which is measured by the Gini coefficient. The month with the lowest average high temperature is January (25.8C). In high-income countries, where animal protein intake is high, Grasgruber (2014) found that the strongest predictor of male height is the ratio of high-quality animal proteins from milk products, red meat, and fish to low-quality plant proteins from wheat, rice and other cereals.32 This could explain why some countries with very high socioeconomic status have shorter heights than wed expect. It depends on the country. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 100(5), 1302-1319. inversely correlated), or an increase since lying down for a significant period of time (i.e. Adult height and childhood disease. The changing shape of global inequality 18202000; exploring a new dataset. Table 6. i Dutta, Pratap C. 1984. In general (with local variations), there is a drier season from November to April, and a rainier season from May to October. [15], Cuba is divided into 15provinces and one special municipality. All the software and code that we write is open source and made available via GitHub under the permissive MIT license. Did men or women see the greatest increase in height over this period? There are large variations in average height between nations: the shortest being men in Timor at 160 cm, and the tallest from the Netherlands at 182 cm. Nutrition reviews, 74(3), 149-165. Moorjani, P., Thangaraj, K., Patterson, N., Lipson, M., Loh, P. R., Govindaraj, P., & Singh, L. (2013). [7] As of 2011, Cuba had six offshore petroleum development projects with foreign oil companies Petrovietnam (Vietnam), Petronas (Malaysia), PDVSA (Venezuela), Sonangol (Angola), ONGC (India), Repsol (Spain), and Statoil (Norway). There are significant regional variations in change in average human heights. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the average age-adjusted height for American men 20 years and older is is 69.1 inches (175.4 cm), or 5 feet 9 inches tall, and the average height of an American female over 20 years of age is 63.5 inches (161.5 cm), or 5' 3.5" tall. Perkins, J. M., Subramanian, S. V., Davey Smith, G., & zaltin, E. (2016). Journal of economic literature, 33(4), 1903. While average height of men around the world increased by 5%, the percentage change in the height of Iranian men was double that at 10%. 2005. Better-known smaller towns include Baracoa, which was the first Spanish settlement on Cuba, Trinidad, a UNESCO world heritage site, and Bayamo. All other material, including data produced by third parties and made available by Our World in Data, is subject to the license terms from the original third-party authors. Inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa: new data and new insights from anthropometric estimates. The tornado caused extensive damage, destroying at least 90 homes, killing four people and injuring 195. In the Philippines the opposite was true: male height increased by around 5% versus only 1% for women. At 11 years old, girls are typically more than two centimeters taller than boys. This list shows the average height of male individuals from each country. Contribution of animal source foods in improving diet quality and function in children in the developing world. Firstly, we see that changes in height across the world are gradual: average heights do not suddenly jump one year to the next, but instead tend to change at rates of less than 1% per year. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagey. The largest natural water mirror is Laguna de Leche at 67.2km2 (25.9sqmi), while the man-made Zaza Reservoir, at 113.5km2 (43.8sqmi), is the largest inland water surface by area in the country. The figures demonstrate a discrepancy with many of the findings of the. This is unlikely to be the case when measuring the height of skeletons. However, the factors that influence height have an upper limit: nutrient intake, for example, likely has limits above which benefits stop. On average, women work less - 34 hours a week - and earn less - 22,151. Bowman, S. A., & Vinyard, B. T. (2004). Economics & Human Biology, 15, 81-100. This topic page can be cited as: All visualizations, data, and code produced by Our World in Data are completely open access under the Creative Commons BY license. This represents a range of 22 cm, or 8 inches. Princeton University Press. Seas 2 to 4 ft. .TONIGHT.E winds 15 kt S of 17N, and E to SE 10 to 15 kt N of 17N. by Max Roser, Cameron Appel and Hannah Ritchie. A recent global remote sensing analysis suggested that there were 675km of tidal flats in Cuba, making it the 38th-ranked country in terms of tidal flat area.[5]. As such, low-income countries are unlikely to exhibit enough dietary diversity. Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean Sea. The studies included healthy children from a diverse set of ethnicities, in order to reduce the impact of genetic variability between populations.4. This trend is in line with general improvements in health and nutrition during this period. (1985). This means the range of human heights in a population fall centrally around the mean height. 1970. Human energy requirements. Stature and the Standard of Living. 2012", "Fysisk aktivitet blant voksne og eldre i Norge", Norwegian Directorate for Health and Social Affairs, "WHO STEPS Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factor Surveillance, Data book for Oman 2017", "Sultanate of Oman STEPS Survey 2017, Fact Sheet", "Height trends in the population of Rabwah, district Chiniot, Pakistan and comparison with WHO standards", "Non-communicable diseases risk factors survey - Pakistan", "Papua New Guinea NCD Risk Factors STEPS Report", "Encuesta Nacional de Indicadores Nutricionales, Bioqumicos, Socioeconmicos y Culturales relacionados con las Enfermedades Crnico Degenerativas 2005", Estimated Population Percentage Distribution, By Age and Sex Philippines, 2003, "Polish 2010 growth references for school-aged children and adolescents", "Qatar STEPwise report, chronic disease risk factor surveillance", "Population of the Russian Federation by sex and age as of January 1, 2010", "Bioimpedance study of body composition in the Russian population", "Rwanda Non-communicable Diseases Risk Factors Report", "2008 STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Survey Report", "Body Size and Composition, Lifestyle and Health Among Native Samoan Women", "Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents", "WHO STEPwise Approach to NCD Surveillance, CountrySpecific Standart Report, Saudi Arabia 2005", "Prevalence of obesity and body size perceptions in urban and rural Senegal: new insight on the epidemiological transition in West Africa", "Comparison of different anthropometric measures in the adult population in Serbia as indicators of obesity: data from the National Health Survey 2013", "Body Height and Its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements in Serbian Adults", "The prevalence of the common risk factors of non-communicable diseases in Sierra Leone", "A Population-wide study of electrocardiographic (ECG) norms and the effect of demographic and anthropometric factors on selected ECG characteristics in young, Southeast Asian males-results from the Singapore Armed Forces ECG (SAFE) study", "Comparison of Slovak reference values for anthropometric parameters in children and adolescents with international growth standards: implications for the assessment of overweight and obesity", "Is there a rationale for establishing Slovenian body mass index references of school-aged children and adolescents", "Solomon Islands NCD Risk Factors STEPS Report", "SOUTH AFRICA DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY 2003", "Sudan STEPwise survey for non-communicable diseases risk factors 2016 report", "Grupo Investigacin Antropometra Instituto de Biomecnica", "El estudio antropomtrico realizado por el IBV desvela las medidas actuales del hombre espaol", "Spanish cross-sectional growth study 2008. part ii. d Page 207 in Hawkes, Ernest William. A high level of socioeconomic development therefore predicts taller average heights. How does environment and living standards affect the distribution of heights? The chart presents the expected growth rates for healthy boys and girls during childhood and adolescence. The main island consists mostly of flat to rolling plains. Cuba is the principal island, which is surrounded by four main groups of islands. The northeastern shore is lined by the Sabana-Camagey Archipelago, which includes Jardines del Rey and is composed of approximately 2,517 cays and islands. The Biological Standard of Living in Europe during the Last Two Millennia. European Review of Economic History 9(1): 6195. e Mellink, Machteld J., and J. Lawrence Angel. It plots average male height on the y-axis, and average female height on the x-axis. The climate is tropical, though moderated by trade winds. Stephensen, C. B. Burden of infection on growth failure. Forecasts are computed 4 times a day, at about 1:00 AM, 7:00 AM, 1:00 PM and 7:00 PM Cuba Daylight Time. Jos Abreu. Conscripts, 19 (N= m:12,447, Median= m:178.0cm (5ft 10in), SD= m: Non-Hispanic white, 2039 (N= m:715 f:689), Non-Hispanic black, 2039 (N= m:405 f:418), Non-Hispanic Asian, 2039 (N= m:260 f:272), 18 (around 22,400 families across 25 cities and provinces). Test subjects may have been invited instead of chosen at random, resulting in. (2018). Iranian men saw the largest change, gaining 16.5 cm in mean height, while men from the Marshall Islands grew by only 0.5 cm. NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) (2016). Cambridge, Mass. Height can vary over the course of a day, due to factors such as a decrease from exercise done directly before measurement (i.e. A curve FW 70/10, dropping gradually from the 70th to the 10th centiles, may be applied to Colombia, Cuba and well off Guatemalans. Seas 5 to 7 ft. $$ AMZ048-290315- Caribbean from 15N to 18N between 72W and 76W- 1110 AM EDT Fri Apr 28 2023 .TODAY.E to SE winds 10 to 15 kt. The annual inflation rate in Cuba increased to 44.50 percent in February of 2023 from 42.08 percent in the previous month. People today are taller, on average, than their ancestors 100 years ago. Despite variation across countries, men and women globally saw similar gains: about 8 to 9 cm. Some studies may allow subjects to self-report values. Cuba is the largest country by land area in the Caribbean. This page provides - Cuba Wages- actual values, historical data, forecast, chart, statistics, economic calendar and news. The Physical Characteristics of the Sandawe. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 77(1): 6178. Wages in Cuba averaged 867.29 CUP/Month from 2008 until 2021, reaching an all time high of 3830.00 CUP/Month in 2021 and a record low of 415.00 CUP/Month in 2008. Other indigenous, 2024 (N= m:257 f:380, SD= m: 20+ (N= 984 (m:494 f:490, SD= m:8.07cm (3in) f: 20+ (N= 496 (m:241 f:255, SD= m:8.09cm (3in) f: Chinese conscripts, average age 18.5 SD 1.2, (N= 104,223, SD= 6.2cm), Malay conscripts, average age 18.5 SD 1.2, (N= 25,405, SD= 6.2cm), Indian conscripts, average age 18.4 SD 1.3, (N= 11,865 , SD= 6.6cm). Cuba is an archipelago of islands located in the Caribbean Sea, with the geographic coordinates 213N, 8000W. The original sources of Clark are:a Page 133 in Meiklejohn, Christopher, and Marek Zvelebil. Genetic evidence for recent population mixture in India. Both child mortality and healthcare expenditure impact life expectancy: we would therefore expect them to be strong determinants of the relationship between standard of living and average height. riverfront homes for sale in north carolina, palo santo tree growing zone, bury st edmunds recycling centre opening times,
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